Fundamental ways of making merit
( Punnakiriyavatthu)

The word “ merit” is the name of happiness. One should make haste in doing good, keep one’s mind from evil, for the mind of him who is slow is making merit will take delight is evil.

Buddhism teaches us that the accumulation of merit or good is blissful, but that of evil is painful. A person should perform merit or good. He should go it again and again, and then he should find pleasure in so doing.

In short, there are three fundamental ways of making merit. There are:
1. Danamaya- merit acquired by giving dana. Dana or generosity is to give food or other things to persons who need help such as the poorer class of people or those who are in suffering, or those who are virtuous persons such as monks
We should give and share our own things with other people in the proper time, because in Buddhism there are many teaching about giving Dana, such as the giver of his own things to other people always attracts the hearts of the receivers.

2. Silamaya- merit acqured by observing Sila. Sila in the control of body and speech so that they shall be well disciplined. Buddhism teaches us that percepts are the incomparable force, the greatest weapon, the most splendid ornament and wonderful armour.There are many kinds of Sila in Buddhism. The five precepts and the eight precepts are for laymen. The ten precepts are for novices, but the two hundred and twenty-seven precepts are for Bhikkhus.

3. Bhavanamaya- this is the highest step of doing good. It is the cleaning of the mind, freeing is from defilement or or impurities, in modern terms, it is to promote the health of the mind, for when the mind is of poor health, the body con not remain healthy for every long. There are many methods in developing the mind, but they can be divided into two groups, i.e., samatha or meditation and vipassana or insight.

In this class, we shall study a code of five major moral precepts ( pacasila) as follows:
1. Panatapata veramani.
The abstaining from killing living beings.
2. Adinnadana veramani.
The abstaining from stealing.
3. Kamesu micchacara veramani.
The abstaining from committing adultery.
4. Musavada veramani.
The abstaining from telling lies.
5. Suramerayamajjapamadattathana veramani.
The abstaining from intoxicant drinks.

These five precepts are the virtues of human being, without sila, human being con not live happily in society. So it is necessary for everyone to observe these five precepts.